Thursday, February 2, 2012

DHARNA AND PRESS CONFERENCE

DHARNA AND PRESS CONFERENCE
FEB 3, 2012, 3PM
HARYANA BHAWAN, COPERNICUS MARG


100 farmers both men and women from Meo community coming from the villages of Rojka Meo, Kedli Kankar, Rewasan, Mehrola, Kenwersika, Bedelaki, Dhirduka, Rupaheri and Behadri of block Nuh , Mewat would join Anhad at a Dharna and a press Conference at the Haryana Bhawan, Copernicus Marg, New Delhi at 3pm on Feb 3, 2012.      

Dharna will continue till 5pm.

Dharna is to protest the discrimination in the payment of compensation to the Mewati villagers. Their entire agricultural land has been taken away and the compensation provided is Rs 16 lakhs per hectare where as the land acquired from adjoining non-Meo villages has got compensation of 45 and even 55 lakhs per hectare.

SC judgement no indictment of govt: Sibal

Dismissing the view that the Supreme Court's judgement cancelling 122 2G licences was an indictment, Telecom Minister Kapil Sibal on Thursday said the government will move forward in the issue after regulator TRAI make its recommendations.

"There is no indictment of the Prime Minister or the then Finance Minister (P Chidambaram) in the Supreme Court's judgement. If there is any indictment it is the 2003 policy (first-come, first-serve) of the NDA government and we only followed it," he told a press conference shortly after the Supreme Court judgement on the issue.
The government will abide by the judgement that spectrum should be auctioned which, he said, the ministry has done by delinking spectrum from the licence in 2011 after he took over.
He said the UPA only followed the policy of the NDA government of FCFS, which has been declared discriminatory by the apex court.
The BJP, therefore, must apologise to the nation from the nation for causing huge loss to the government.
Asked about the implications of the judgement on the companies like Telenor of Norway and Sistema of Russion who have pumped huge money to roll out services, the minister said any aggrieved corporate can approach the court for relief.
The confusion has been removed and clarity has been brought in the sector and this help in getting investments in the important sector.
While blaming the NDA for the 2003 policy which the UPA implemented, he sought to shift blame on irregularities in the manner in which it was implemented on the then telecom minister A Raja.
"The Supreme Court has clearly said that the then minister (Raja) did not heed to the good advice of both Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and the Finance Ministry," Sibal said.
Sibal said that there was problem in implementation of the policy and "that is why Raja is where he is".
At the same time in reply to questions he denied he was blaming Raja or UPA ally DMK.
"DMK is our valued ally and they will continue to be our valued ally," he said.
Asked whether Chidambaram was guilty of omission by not preventing the scam, he said how can he be blamed if there was no time for him to know that some wrong was being committed.
Asked whether the FCFS policy, which is also applicable in other sector like mining, could be impacted by the judgement, the minister said "it could be."
He, however, said that the government will not pre-empt a revision of the policy in other sectors.
"Why should we pre-empt, there are statutes in other sector, let the Supreme Court strike it down," he said.
From now it is a new beginning and the nation will attract more investments in a sector which is crying for the investments since last more than a year ever since the uncertainties engulfed this sector.
About losses to the government, he said "there is no question of loss if the policy (FCFS) is right and if the policy is faulty then you will have to calculate losses from October 2003 onward when the policy was implemented."
Asked what lesson the government has learnt from on Thursday's judgement, Sibal said "which ever the minister is functioning must consult everybody... and not commit any irregularity."

SC has not passed any remark against Chidambaram: Cong

The Congress has noted that the Supreme Court has not passed any remark against Home Min P Chidambaram in the 2G case but withheld detailed comment pending study of the apex court order.

"We have respect for the judgement of the Supreme Court. They have not passed any remarks against Home Minister P Chidambaram and as far as telecom licenses are concerned which are cancelled, we have not gone through the judgement so far," party spokesperson Rashid Alvi said on Thursday.

He said it is too early to comment on the judgement. "Let us go through the judgement," he added.

The Supreme Court on Thursday left it to the trial court to decide on the demand for investigation of the alleged role of Chidambaram into the 2G spectrum allocation scam but refused to give direction to CBI on the issue.

UN chief urges Israel to halt settlements


UN chief urges Israel to halt settlements

Israel must halt settlement building and present detailed proposals for a border with a future Palestinian state, visiting UN chief Ban Ki-moon has said.

Ban, tried to persuade the Palestinians to continue low-level meetings with Israel that the international community hopes will evolve into serious negotiations.

Ban praised Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas for his leadership and publicly backed him on key issues, including the demand for a freeze of settlement building on occupied lands the Palestinians want for their state.

With Abbas by his side, the UN chief affirmed that "all Israeli settlements are contrary to international law and prejudice" the outcome of a final peace deal.

At the same time, Ban urged the Palestinian leader not to let the current peace efforts lose momentum.

The dialogue on borders and security arrangements began last month at the urging of the Quartet of Mideast mediators, the US, UN, EU and Russia, which asked both sides to submit detailed proposals. The Quartet has said it wants a final deal by the end of the year.

Abbas has said the Jordanian-mediated exploratory meetings in Amman have run their course, but that he'll decide after consultations with the Arab League next week whether to resume them.

"I don't like the word 'closing the door to negotiations.'" Abbas said Wednesday.

"Israel did not present encouraging offers in the Amman talks, but if it does, we will be ready (to resume talks)."

Earlier on Tuesday, Ban met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who has rejected Palestinian demands for a settlement freeze ahead of any full-fledged negotiations, arguing that this is an unacceptable precondition. Israel has said it wants to continue the exploratory talks.

"We are at a critical moment for Israel and the region," Ban said after his talks with Netanyahu. "I remain hopeful that the direct, frequent exchanges between the parties with continue."

Formal peace talks have stalled for more than three years, in large part over the settlement issue.

The Palestinians say there is no point in negotiating as long as Israel continues to settle its population in the West Bank and east Jerusalem, areas that the Palestinians want for their future state, along with the Gaza Strip.

Some 500,000 Israelis now live in these areas, and this week Netanyahu's government approved new financial incentives meant to lure more Israelis to the West Bank. Continued settlement "does not help the ongoing peace process," Ban said.

"They should refrain from further settlement for the sake of ongoing peace talks. This can be a way of expressing goodwill gestures."

Indian Army Preparing for Limited Conflict with China


By SiliconIndia,Wednesday, 01 February 2012, 15:00 IST
 

Washington: Noting that India is increasingly getting concerned about China's posture on its border, a top U.S. intelligence official on Wednesday said that the Indian Army is strengthening itself for a "limited conflict" with China.


"Despite public statements intended to downplay tensions between India and China, we judge that India is increasingly concerned about China's posture along their disputed border and Beijing's perceived aggressive posture in the Indian Ocean and Asia-Pacific region," Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said in his prepared testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence.


"The Indian Army believes a major Sino-Indian conflict is not imminent, but the Indian military is strengthening its forces in preparation to fight a limited conflict along the disputed border, and is working to balance Chinese power projection in the Indian Ocean," he said.


India, Clapper said, has expressed support for a strong U.S. military posture in East Asia and U.S. engagement in Asia. He said China in 2011 appeared to temper the assertive behavior that characterised its foreign policy the year before, but the internal and external drivers of that behavior persist.

Many of Beijing's military capability goals have now been realised, resulting in impressive military might.

Other goals remain longer term, but the Chinese army is receiving the funding and political support to transform it into a fully modern force, capable of sustained operations in Asia and beyond, he said.


Meanwhile a British daily reported that the latest of the border talks between India and China had ended in a deadlock after China made no signs of softening its stand for “its share” of Arunachal Pradesh. The 15th round of Sino-Indian special representative talks ended on January 17 after the two-day meeting, at the end of which both the countries claimed to have made substantial progress.


The talks headed by National Security Adviser Shiv Shankar Menon and his Chinese counterpart, state councillor Dai Bingguoa went off the track at the Chinese persistence of talks on the eastern boundary in Arunachal Pradesh. “The hosts were surprised when Dai, couching his query in diplomatic niceties, asked Menon how much territory New Delhi would part with,” the daily quoted “highly placed” sources  as saying.


(With PTI Inputs)

"Moreover, although Chinese leaders have affirmed their commitment to a peaceful and pragmatic foreign policy - and especially to stable relations with China's neighbours and the rest of the world - Beijing may take actions contrary to that goal if it perceives that China's sovereignty or national security is being seriously challenged," he said.


Businesses at Asia’s biggest IT mecca to fight it out

Businesses at Asia’s biggest IT mecca to fight it out
Assert right to Safer, Cleaner and Regulated Nehru Place
New Delhi February 1, 2012
Fed up by the civic apathy to offering a clean, safe and regulated environment to conduct business, nearly 2000 shops, retailers and offices shut down Asia’s biggest IT mecca, Nehru Place, today.  
A bustling shopping market in south Delhi wore a deserted look as the Presidents of 5, Nehru Place associations jointly asserted their right to a Safer, Cleaner and Regulated work environment.
Led by Nehru Place Improvement and Welfare Association (NIWA) President Anil K Sehgal, the presidents of the four associations dealing with Export Fabrics, Computer Hardware, Peripherals and Media distribution made fervent pleas to the civic and administrative authorities to rise and help restore a Safer, Cleaner and Regulated work environment.
“We shall continue to ask for the pride of place that Nehru Place had come to deserve as a commercial hub adding Rs. 1000 crore annually to the government revenues,” asserted Mr. Sehgal.
The working group of the ‘Nehru Place Bachao’ will continue to bring up issues with various bodies till they are completely resolved both in letter and spirit.
“Business and trading community from city’s busiest commercial hub, Nehru Place will continue its Nehru Place Bachao’ campaign kicked off as a peaceful protest here today”, the statement added.
The core committee decided to support move by the government to check unregulated hawking so as to quickly get off the ‘list of 30 most notorious cities in the world’ as none of its members were engaged in any such activity.
“While we respect the right of every citizen to earn a living, they must do so within the legal framework”, added the joint statement issued at the end of the peaceful protest attended by several thousand people.
Nehru Place, Asia’s biggest computer hardware and peripherals distribution hub,
That has of late been facing deteriorating civic amenities led the Core committee to seek the support of the Lt. Governor of Delhi to ameliorate pathetic conditions being faced by Nehru Place occupants.
Nehru Place, designed to be one of the modern complexes by Delhi Development Authority (DDA) in 1970s, has over the years regressed into one of the filthiest markets in the national capital, especially during rains.
Nearly 12,500 people engaged in 1283 businesses and offices in Nehru Place who have signed a plea to the Lt. Governor of Delhi to save this burgeoning business hub, stayed away from work and participated in the peaceful protest.
The core committee of 5 associations that addressed several thousand occupants under‘ Nehru Place Bachao’ campaign sought authorities to provide and improve facilities due to the genuine occupants of Nehru Place shops and offices in keeping with the changing times.
The Core Group—comprising Anil K Sehgal, President,Nehru Place Improvement & Welfare Association, NIWA; Mahinder Aggarwal, President, All Delhi Computer Traders Association (ADCTA), HR Sahni, President, Export Fabric Suppliers Association (EFSA); Puneet Singhal, President, Computer Media Dealers’ Association (CMDA) and R.K. Malhotra, President, Progressive Channels Association of Information Technology (PCAIT)-- agreed to maintain pressure on the authorities in the coming weeks and months.
Draft National Water Policy 2012
Not the Farmers, Not the Environment
Draft National Policy 2012 seems to help only vested interests
National Water Policies are extremely important legal and institutional tools as they reflect the basic intent and direction that the government is planning to take regarding water resources. To ensure that this is a direction acceptable and beneficial to all, open public consultations need to be the backbones of such policies. Thus looking at the immense importance of water to society & environment it is extremely important to have consultations on the recently published Draft 2012 National Water Policy1, especially at the grassroots levels right upto the gram sabhas so that the ground concerns get reflected in the policy. Having limited participation of communities in the process threatens to make the exercise almost entirely undemocratic and is likely to be hijacked by the vested interests. Though it has been stated that consultations about the Policy have been held2, these are far from adequate and have not be publicised enough to ensure wide participation. Most of these were not open consultations, but consisted of invited delegates. This cannot be called as an open, inclusive process. Four regional consultations were organised with Panchayati Raj representatives and it will be too ambitious to assume that four such meetings in cities can reflect rural concerns entirely. As it is, many of the important points raised in the Panchayati Raj institutions consultations do not find a mention in the Draft Policy.
The exercise of reformulating the NWP was taken up also in the context of Climate change, as mentioned in the National Action Plan for Climate Change and also the National Water Mission, and that makes it all the more important those vulnerable sections (tribals, rainfed farmers, small and marginal farmers, coastal communities, hill communities, fisherfolks, women and rural populations, the populations in the north east and western ghats) are all consulted in the process, which does not seem to be the case with the current draft.
The draft National Policy 2012 differs greatly from its1987 and 2002 predecessors in the direction it seems to be taking as well as some of its basic premises. Hence, the significance of a transparent consultation process before proceeding forward becomes even more crucial.
Some of the major areas of concern from the draft of the National Policy include:
1 http://mowr.gov.in/writereaddata/linkimages/DraftNWP2012_English9353289094.pdf and http://mowr.gov.in/writereaddata/linkimages/DraftNWP2012_Hindi182295781.pdf and their PR at: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=79981
2 http://wrmin.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=201&langid=1
Unlike the previous policies, this policy does not spell out the clear priorities of water allocation. It accords first stated priority to basic livelihood needs and ecosystem needs. This can be considered as a welcome step only if all the specificities about water allocation for livelihoods and ecosystem needs are worked out, discussed and accepted along with the necessary legal and institutional back up. In the absence of any of these, just a statement that “After meeting the minimum quantity of water required for survival of human beings and ecosystem, water will be treated as an economic good” may end up making water ONLY an economic good. The National Policy of 2002 had also stated that minimum flows will be maintained in rivers, but in the absence of any further direction, nothing happened on this front for the last 10 years anywhere in the country, and the state of Indian rivers have only worsened in the period. When the South African Water Act was passed in 1997, based on the White Paper on South African Water and Sanitation Policy, 1994, the policy took a detailed look at defining water for basic human needs, its quality, quantity, access, distance, etc, as well as various issues related to water and environment. It was only with this background that South Africa could take the revolutionary step of securing water for basic human needs and ecological reserves first. It went through a rigorous, extensive process of consultations with the communities and other stakeholders (which still continues) to actually calculate the reserve, implement it and monitor it.
When India’s Draft NWP 2012 mentions that ‘Access to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation should be regarded as a right to life essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights’, this statement needs to be strongly qualified in the context of exhausting all local options, demand side management measures and ensuring maximum reuse and recycle. In the absence of this, large dams and infrastructure projects will continue to be planned and justified for wasteful needs of large cities like Mumbai and Delhi as is happening now, without considering the carrying capacity and sustainability of ecosystems involved.
The sub section on Adaptation to Climate change and the statement that special attention will be given towards mitigation at micro level by enhancing the capabilities of community to adopt climate resilient technological options is welcome. However, the crucial lesson which is being learnt the world over, of how to make the huge existing water infrastructure (which is currently causing more problems in face of unpredictable climate change) more responsive and adaptable to climate change is not addressed here. Also the need for sustainable agricultural practices like increasing soil’s capacity to retain moisture by increasing soil carbon content, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), organic farming, etc as coping measures for climate change also do not find a mention. The world over, ecological coping strategies like flood forecasting, flood preparedness, flood regulation zones, riparian belts, mangrove protection, biological bank stabilization methods etc., are used as coping and adaptation measures . These biological, low impact and low investment measures do not find a mention on our draft policy, but infrastructure-heavy interventions like embankments and dams have been pushed again.
Though the policy does not say a word about increasing the soil moisture content, which actually should be the first objective of all irrigation strategies, it supports and even encourages inter basin
water transfers from so called ‘open basins’ to ‘closed basins’. This is highly inappropriate. Firstly we need to assess the exhaust the potential of sustainable options like watershed development, local water harvesting systems, rooftop and other rainwater harvesting, local ground water recharge, demand side management, including water saving methods like SRI, SSI (Sustainable Sugar Initiative), water saving cropping patterns, and also avoid non essential water intensive activities, recycling by water intensive industries and so on. In the absence of such concerted efforts in any basin of the country, and in the face of the high inefficiency, social and ecological impacts of large infrastructure projects, such encouragement to inter basin transfers is unviable and unacceptable.
The section on project planning and implementation begins, as expected directly with large multipurpose infrastructure projects, without even mentioning the appropriateness of subsidiarity principle. After making a number of oft-repeated, bland statements about participation, etc, it goes on to make a shocking statement that all ‘All water resources projects, including hydro power projects, should be planned to the extent feasible as multi-purpose projects with provision of storage’. This is a dangerous statement to make. Giving privileged position to such mega storages compared to other storage options (e.g. increasing soil capacity to retain moisture, local storages, underground storages) and optimum use of existing storage capacities is uncalled for. On the other hand, there is need for an assessment of the benefits from existing projects to ensure how they can be optimised. There is a huge potential which should be acknowledged and prioritised. Secondly, there is need for basin wide carrying capacity, cumulative impact assessment studies in each basin in a credible independent way to ensure that unviable capacities and storages are not added.
The section on Institutional Arrangements also has some unpleasant surprises. It begins with the statement that Water Resources Regulatory Authorities (WRRA) are a must in each state. WRRA was first established in Maharashtra in 2005 through the MWRRA Act. The centralised, top down bureaucratic authority with no space for community representatives has been ineffective in achieving any worthwhile objective or making water resources management pro poor or pro environment or stopping inter sector water allocation. The act has now been amended by an ordinance which gives rights of water allocation to the cabinet, which chose to change water allocation from farmers on verge of suicides in Vidarbha to thermal power plants. So what is the basis on which WRRA are being pushed for in the National Water Policy, apart from the fact that it is pushed by the World Bank?
A most shocking statement in the Policy is the assertion that “The “Service Provider” role of the state has to be gradually reduced and shifted to regulation and control of services. The water related services should be transferred to community and / OR private sector ...” “Public Private Partnership” model under the general superintendence of the State or the stakeholders. This seems to be a blanket go ahead for water privatisation, which has been proved to be anti people, anti poor, pro private water utilities and hence unacceptable. Privatisation has not succeeded anywhere and is not likely to succeed in any case in India, and will only work towards worsening the water services scene, particularly for the poor, but actually for everyone. Particularly when we have no credible
mechanisms to ensure transparent, accountable water resources management, nor do we have laws to ensure legally enforceable right to water and democratic norms.
Another major problem is the sketchy mention of groundwater and very little concerted attention given to the issue. As is clear to everyone from the mounting dependence on groundwater in every water sub sector in India, groundwater is the real water life line of India, be it the urban or the rural sector, agriculture or industries, and it was expected that the policy will state the acute problems faced by the sector and put forth concrete steps of overcoming these and conserving the resource, which has not happened.
The attention given in the Draft NWP 2012 to information sharing, climate change, priority to basic human needs and ecosystems are welcome, but these may remain at superficial lip service level without clearly defined norms and credible mechanisms to achieve these objectives.
On the whole, the anti farmer, pro private company, anti poor stance of the current draft is disappointing and it seems the water resources establishment has refused to learn lessons from the past. There has been only a notional attempt at a democratic process in the formulation of the new draft policy and it seems an opportunity that comes once in a generation may be lost if we hurry too much to proceed without open, publicised consultations right down to gram sabha level. We urge the water resources establishment, including the Union Ministry of Water Resources, Central Water Commission and the Planning Commission to reinstate a credible participatory, democratic process for formulating new National Water Policy in the changing climate, keeping societal and ecosystemic sustainability and equity in mind. A mere 29 days period for comments from the date of publication, that too when the draft policy is put up only on the website, seems too less for ground concerns to reach the administration. 3
Himanshu Thakkar (ht.sandrp@gmail.com),
Parineeta Dandekar (parineeta.dandekar@gmail.com)
1 February 2012
www.sandrp.in
www.facebook.com/sandrp.in
3 Last date for sending

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
                                          OF
                    GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
                                       We are confronted with what is the single most potent technology the world has ever known. It is  more powerful than atomic energy. Yet it is being released throughout our environment with superficial or no risk assessment. It has unparalleled powers to harm life and most worrying part is that these harmful effects are going to be transmitted to future generations. Modern GE started in Eighties. First food product was Flavr Savr Tomato which was brought to the market in1993. Large number of GM Foods followed. The list is becoming longer and longer.
But unfortunately these foods are being rushed through without proper testing. Scientific Community is sharply divided on the safety of these foods. There are more than 1000 studies which clearly show that GM Foods are toxic to
n   animals and humans
n  Microbes in the soil
n  Can destroy plant & animal biodiversity
n  Can destroy medicinal value of plants
This presentation is based on these 1000 scientific studies taken from the literature as reviewed and summarized by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette. He has divided these studies into eight major sections and further 65 types of adverse effects on health and environment.
 Jeffrey Smith has written two books about the significant danger genetically modified (GM) foods pose to your health, and the health of the entire planet. His first book, "Seeds of Deception", is the world’s best selling book on the topic. His second, "Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods", provides overwhelming evidence that GMOs are unsafe and should never have been introduced.
He’s also the executive director of the Institute for Responsible Technology, whose Campaign for Healthier Eating in America is designed to create the tipping point of consumer rejection of GMOs, forcing them out of our food supply. As a major force  against GM foods, Smith is responsible for limiting the spread of GM crops in the US, just like others have successfully done in Europe.
In addition to his books he has also created two videos: Hidden Dangers in Kids' Meals, and Your Milk on Drugs, Just Say No.
( I ) EVIDENCE OF REACTIONS IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS :
 1.  GM Potatoes damaged rats:
                     Year- 1996- England--Arpad  Pusztai--GM Potato-using Snowdrop Plant Gene-which produces an insecticide called GNA Lectin. Precancerous cell growth in digestive tract. Inhibited development of brains, livers, testicles. Partial atrophy of liver. Enlarged-Pancreas- Intestines. Immune system damage.
( Arpad Pusztai, " Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM foods," Nutrition and Health, 2002, Vol16 Pp 73-84)
2.  Rats fed on GM tomatoes got bleeding stomachs, several died:
 Year 1993--USA--Three 28 day rat feeding studies on GM tomatoes by Calgene Company--7 out of 20 developed stomach lesions leading to bleeding.
 (Department of Veterinary Medicine,FDA, correspondence June 16 1993. As quoted in Fred A. Hines, Memo to Dr. Linda Kahl. " Flavr Savr Tomato:....Pathology Branch's Evaluation of Rats with Stomach Lesions From 3-4 week Oral Toxicity Studies.....an Expert Panel Report," Alliance for Bio-Integrity( June 16, 1993 ) http://www.biointegrity/FDAdocs/17/view1.html )  
( Arpad Pusztai, " Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/ Animal Health." June 2001 Action Bioscience http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/pusztai.html )
3. Rats fed on Bt Corn had multiple health problems :
 USA--90 day feeding study on rats on GM (Bt) Corn--There were cellular changes in blood cells, livers and kidneys. A study by Monsanto but analyzed by Gilles-Eric Seralini, a well known French scientist.
( John M. Burns, "13-Week Dietary Subchronic Comparison Study with MON863 Corn in Rats Preceded by a 1-Week Baseline Food Consumption Determination with PMI Certified Rodent Diet#5002," December 17, 2002. http://www.monsanto.com/monsanto/content/sci_tech/prod_safety/fullratstudy.pdf ) ( R.I. Vazquez-Padron et al."Cry1Ac Protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. Kurstaki HD73 Binds to Surface Proteins in the Mouse Small Intestine," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 271 (2000):
4. Mice fed on GM Bt Potatoes had intestinal damage :
 Mice fed on GM Bt. Potatoes as well as Bt Toxin sprayed potatoes. Both the groups showed abnormal and excessive cell growth ileum. Regulators have allowed Bt food crops based on the assumption that Bt toxin does not survive digestion in the stomach. They say that even if a small portion survives, there are no receptors on the surface of mammalian intestinal cells for Bt proteins-so they say Bt toxin can't harm mammalian tissues. The results of this Mice Study has proved that Bt toxin can survive digestion and can damage mammalian cells.
( R.I. Vazquez Padron et.al."Cry1AcProtoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. Kurstaki HD73. Binds to Surface Proteins in the Mouse Small Intestine," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 271 (2000); 54-58.)
(Naggui H.Fares, Adel K. El-Sayed," Fine structural Changes in the Ileum Fed on Endotoxin Treated Potatoes and Transgenic Potatoes," Natural Toxins 6, no.6 (1998);219-233.)
 5. Workers exposed to Bt Cotton developed allergies:
In 2004-05 in Madhya Pradesh in India-Agricultural laborers in six villages who picked and loaded Bt Cotton reported allergic reactions pertaining to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. These workers had to take regular anti histaminics to work. Some of them had to be hospitalized. One doctor who was interviewed treated 250 patients in one season.
(Ashish Gupta et al,"Impact of Bt Cotton on Farmers' Health (Barwani and Dhar Distrct of Madhya Pradesh )," Investigation Report, Oct-Dec 2005 )
 6. Sheep died after grazing in Bt cotton fields :
In Warangal District of Andhra Pradesh-India President of Indian Shephard Union noticed unusual autopsy reports of 11 sheep in the register of District Animal Health Centre in Warangal which were conducted in the months of February and March, 2006. Some notes were given about the deaths after grazing in Bt Cotton Fields. The Union formed a fact finding team to go into the details of the facts. In April, 2006 they conducted interviews in four villages located 20-25 km apart from each other. Total of 1820 sheep were recorded which had died after grazing in Bt Cotton fields. In one village death rate was as high as 25% amongst 42 herds.
 ( "Mortality in Sheep Flocks after Grazing on Bt Cotton Fields-Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh" Report of the Preliminary Assessment, April 2006, http://www.gmwatch.org/archive2.asp?arcid=6494)
7. Inhaled Bt corn pollen triggered human sickness:--
In 2003 in Philippines 100 people living near Bt corn fields developed skin, respiratory and intestinal reactions / symptoms while the corn was shedding pollen. Blood tests of 39 people showed antibody response to Bt-toxin. The symptoms reappeared in 2004 in at least four other villages that planted the same corn variety. During the study villagers attributed several animal deaths to the same corn.
("Genetically Modified Crops and Illness Linked," Manilla Bulletin, 04 March 2004)
( Mae-Wan Ho, GM Ban Overdue, Dozens Ill & Five Deaths in the Philippines, "ISIS Press Release, June 2, 2006)
(Allen V. Estabillo, "Farmers' Group Urges Ban on Planting Bt Corn; Says It Could Be Cause of Illnesses," Mindanews, October 19,2004)
(The Bt corn pollen symptoms are not identical to the others related to Bt. In addition to some of the same problems, the Filipinos had headaches, stomach aches, dizziness, diarrhea, vomiting, weakness and numbness. In addition, 9 horses, 4 water buffalos, and 37 chickens died after eating the corn. There were also 5 unexplained human deaths)..

 8. Farmers report sterility in cows and pigs because of GM Corn:
More than 20 farmers in USA reported that their cows and pigs which were fed on GM Corn had low fertility rate, had pseudo pregnancies and delivered bags of water instead of fetuses.
(Jerry Romson, personal communications,2006)
 In Haryana, India, a team of investigating veterinarians report that buffalo consuming GM cottonseed suffer from infertility, as well as frequent abortions, premature deliveries, and prolapsed uteruses. Many adult and young buffalo have also died mysteriously.
Russian biologist Alexey V. Surov says,"Without detailed tests, no one can pinpoint exactly what is causing the reproductive travesties in Russian hamsters and rats, Italian and Austrian mice, and livestock (fed on GMOs) in India and America. And we can only speculate about the relationship between the introduction of genetically modified foods in 1996, and the corresponding upsurge in low birth weight babies, infertility, and other problems among the US population. But many scientists, physicians, and concerned citizens don't think that the public should remain the lab animals for the biotech industry's massive uncontrolled experiment.
9.  Twelve cows in Germany died mysteriously when fed Bt Corn:
 ( Henning Strodthoff and Christoph Then,"Is GM maize responsible for deaths of cows in Hesse?," Greenpeace Report, Greenpeace e.V.22745 Hamburg, 2003.)
10. Mice fed on Roundup Ready GM Soya showed Liver Damage:
The liver cells of mice fed on GM Roundup Ready Soya in USA showed microscopic signs of toxic liver (damage which disappeared after GM Soya was stopped.
 (M. Malatesta, C. Caporaloni, S. Gavasaudan .... ," Ultrastructural Morphological and Immunocytochemical Analysis of Hepatocyte Nuclear Modifications in Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean," Cell Struct. Funct. 27 (2002): 173-180 )
11. Mice fed on GM Roundup Ready Soya showed Pancreatic Damage:
      Mice fed on GM Roundup Ready Soya showed changes in synthesis and processing of digestive enzymes. Production of alpha-amylase, a major digestive enzyme dropped by 77%.
(M. Malatesta, et. al.," Ultrastructural Analysis of Pancreatic Acinar Cells from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean," Cell Struct. Funct. 27 (2002): 409 )
12. Mice fed on Roundup Ready GM Soya showed changes in testicular cells :
 ( S.S Guraya, Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals ( Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, 1987),
( L. Vecchio et. al. Ultrastructural Analysis of Testes from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean," European Journal of Histochemistry 48, no. 4 ( Oct.-Dec. 2004) 449-454 )
13. Roundup Ready GM Soya changed cell metabolism in rabbit organs :
 Rabbits fed on GM Soya for about 40 days showed significant differences in amounts of certain enzymes in their kidneys, hearts and liver. A rise in LDH 1 levels in all three organs suggest an increase in cellular metabolism. Changes in other enzymes point to other alterations in the organs.
( Tudisco et al, " Genetically Modified Soya Bean in Rabbit Feeding, Detection of DNA Fragments and Evaluation of Metabolic Effects by Enzymatic Analysis, 193-199 )
14.  Most offspring of rats fed on  Roundup Ready GM Soya died within three weeks :
A study by Russian Academy of Sciences in 2005. female rats were fed Roundup Ready GM Soya starting before conception and pregnancy. 55.6% off springs died within three weeks compared to 9% in non-GM Soya controls. Some from GM group were significantly smaller than non-GM group. Both mothers and pups were more aggressive. When offsprings from GM group were mated together, they did not conceive.
( I.V.Irmakova, "Diet with the Soya Modified by Gene EPSPS CP4 Leads to Anxiety and Aggression in Rats," 14th Europian Congress of Psychiatry. Nice, France, March 4-8, 2006. )
 ( Irina Irmakova," Genetically Modified Soya leads to decrease of weight and high mortality of rat pups of the first generation. Preliminary Studies," Ecosinform 1 (2006) 4-9.
 ( I.V.Irmakova, " Genetically Modified Organisms and Biological Risks," Proceedings of International Disaster Reduction Conference (IDRC), Davos, Switzerland August 27th-September 1st, 2006: 168-172. ( I.V.Irmakova, "GMO: Life itself intervened into the experiments," Letter, EcosInform N2 (2006): 3-4.
Genetically Modified Soy Linked to Sterility, Infant Mortality

" Russian biologist Alexey V. Surov and his colleagues set out to discover if Monsanto's genetically modified (GM) soy, grown on 91% of US soybean fields, leads to problems in growth or reproduction. What he discovered may uproot a multi-billion dollar industry. After feeding hamsters for two years over three generations, those on the GM diet, and especially the group on the maximum GM soy diet, showed devastating results. By the third generation, most GM soy-fed hamsters lost the ability to have babies. They also suffered slower growth, and a high mortality rate among the pups. And if this isn't shocking enough, some in the third generation even had hair growing inside their mouths—a phenomenon rarely seen, but apparently more prevalent among hamsters eating GM soy. The study, jointly conducted by Surov's Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Association for Gene Security, is expected to be published in three months (July 2010)—so the technical details will have to wait. But Surov sketched out the basic set up for me in an email--- Jeffery Smith


15. Soya Allergies skyrocketed in UK, soon after GM Soya was introduced :
In 1999, Soya allergies in U K jumped from 10% to 15% of the sample population. GM Soya was imported into the country shortly before 1999. Tests reveal that some individuals react differently to GM and Non-GM Soya.
 (Marktownsend," Why Soya is a hidden destroyer," Letter EcosInform N2(2006):3-4)( Hye-Yung Yum et. al.," Genetically modified and Wild Soybeans: An immunologic comparison," Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 26, no. 3 (May-June 2005): 210-216(7).)
16 : Rats fed on Roundup Ready Canola had heavier livers :
The livers of rats fed on GM Canola were12-16% heavier than those fed on Non-GM Canola. Liver is a chemical factory and primary detoxifier for the body. Heavier liver may indicate liver disease or inflammation.
( Comments to ANZFA about Applications A346, A362 and A363 from the Food Legislation and regulation Advisory Group (FLRAG) of the Public Health Association of Australia ( PHAA ) on behalf of the PHAA, "Food produced from glyphosate-tolerant canola line GT73, " http://www.iher.org.au/ )
 17 : Twice the number of chicken died when fed :
Chickens were fed GM Corn for 42 days. Death Rate in GM group was 7% while it was 3.5% in Non GM Group. Weight gain was also less in GM group.
( S. Leeson, " The Effect of Glufosinate Resistant Corn on Growth of Male Broiler Chicken, "Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, University of Guelph, Report No.A56379,July 12, 1996.)
18 :  GM Peas generated an allergic-type inflammatory response in mice :
GM Peas generated a dangerous immune response in mice. Commercialization of GM Peas was cancelled.
( V.E. Presscot, et.al., Transgenic Expression of Bean r-Amylase Inhibitor in Peas Results in Altered Structure and Immunogenicity," Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry (2005):53.)
 19 :  Eyewitness Reports: Animals Avoid GMOs :
When given the choice, several animals avoid GMO Food. Animals that avoid GM Food include cows, pigs, geese, squirrels, deer, mice etc.
( Mark Newhall, " He Says Geese Don't Like Roundup Ready Beans," Farm Show 24, no. 5 (2000)  plus Twelve more studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 1 No. 110-124).
20 :  GM Food Supplement killed about 100 people and caused 5000-10000 to fall sick:
One GM Food Supplement L-Tryptophan killed 100 people in USA. The Company genetically engineered bacteria to produce the supplement more economically. In 1989, dozens of Americans died and several thousands were afflicted and impaired by a genetically modified version of the food supplement L-tryptophan creating a debilitating ailment known as Eosinophilia Myalgia syndrome (EMS) . A settlement of $2 billion dollars was paid by the manufacturer. Showa Denko, Japan's third largest chemical company destroyed evidence preventing a further investigation
( A.N. Mayeno and G. J. Gleich, eds," Eosinophilia- Myalgia Syndrome and Tryptophan Production: A Cautionary Tale." Trends Biotechnol 12 (1994): 346-352.)--also--www.seedsofdeception.com
( James Maryanski, FDA Biotechnology Coordinator, speaking to investigator William E. Crist's,"The Toxic L-Tryptophan Epidemic," see www.seedsofdeception.com/Public/L-tryptophan/index.cfm )
( National Eosinophilia- Myalgia Syndrome Network, position statement, approved quoted by Gerald J.Gleich, Mayo Clinic and Foundation,May 25, 2000. )
( Edwin M.Kilbourne, et al," Tryptophan Producedby Shova Denko Epidemic Eosinophilia- Myalgia Syndrome,"Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 23, no. 46 (October, 1996): 81-92. )
( II ) GENE INSERTION DISRUPTS THE  DNA :
 The process of Genetic Engineering results into wide spread mutations--in the transgene--in the neighboring DNA and in other areas of genome. These mutations are far greater than previously thought. These mutations can lead to generation of new toxins, allergies and altered nutritional values. The arguments of GM advocates that the technology is precise, predictable and safe has now been disproved.
21 :   Foreign Genes disrupt the DNA at the insertion site:
 (Ten studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No. 5-14.)
22 : Growing GM Crops using tissue culture can create hundreds or thousands of DNA mutations throughout the genome:
 Process of growing plant cells into GM plants may create large number of mutations.
(Ten studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.15-24.)
23 : Gene insertion creates genome-wide changes:
Gene insertion creates genome-wide changes and many of the changes are totally unpredictable. These massive changes may induce drastic changes in the plants with serious health impacts.
( Eight studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.25-32.)
24 :  The promoter may accidentally switch on harmful genes :
Promoter is a switch meant to turn on the transgene. Now it has been proved that it can also switch on natural dormant genes. This may produce a protein which is toxin, allergen, carcinogen or antinutrient.
(Five studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.33-37)
25 :   The promoter may switch on a dormant virus in plants:
It is well known that when certain viruses infect an organism they splice themselves in the host DNA. These viral sequences can be passed on to next generations. These embedded viral sequences get mutated over time and some may be intact also. If GM promoter is inserted in the vicinity of the dormant virus, it might switch it on resulting in virus production. This can result into a catastrophe.
(M.W.Ho and J. Cummins," Hazards of transgenic plants containing the cauliflower mosaic viral promoter: Authors' reply to critiques of " The Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter-a Recipe for Disaster," Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 12, no. 1, (26 September 2000):6-11)
26 :  The promoter might create genetic instability and mutations:
Evidence suggests that the CaMV promoter, contains a recombination hotspot. It may result in breakup and recombination of gene sequences. This instability can create unpredictable results.
(Five studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.39-44)
27 :  Genetic Engineering activates mobile DNA called Transposons which generate mutations :-
In plant DNA mobile elements called transposons move from place to place and can lead to mutations. The tissue culture process used in genetic engineering activates transposons, and is a major factor for genome-wide mutations. Transgene in GM crops tend to be inserted near transposons leading to undesirable expression.
(Four studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 2 No.45,46,47and 49)
28 :  Novel RNA may be harmful to humans and their offspring :
Small RNA sequences can regulate gene expression. RNA is stable, survives digestion and can impact gene expression in mammals that ingest it. The impact can be passed on to future generations. Genetic modification introduces new DNA combinations and mutations, which increase the likelihood that harmful regulatory RNA will be accidentally produced.
 (Twenty four studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No. 50-73)
29 :  Roundup Ready Soybeans produce unintentional RNA variations :
 A "stop signal" is placed after the transgene. The "stop" is ignored in GM Soya, resulting in longer than intended RNA, transcribed from a combination of the transgene, an adjacent transgene fragment and a mutated sequence of DNA. The RNA is further rearranged into four variations any of which may be harmful. The faulty "stop" signal may have triggered the rearrangements. The same "stop" signal is used in other crops which may lead to similar unwanted effects.
 (Nine studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.74-82)
30: Genetically Modified proteins can alter natural chemicals in plants:
  Plants produce thousands of chemicals which, if eaten may fight disease. Genome changes can alter the composition and concentration of these chemicals. The changed proteins may be poorer in nutrients or act as toxins. GM Soybeans, for example produce less cancer fighting isoflavones. Most of such GM induced changes in these natural products go undetected. A highly rich heritage of Medicinal Plants of India can be destroyed in this process.  
(Twenty studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.83-102)
 31 :  GM Crops have altered levels of nutrients and toxins :
Numerous studies on GMOs reveal unintended changes in nutrients, toxins, allergens and other small molecules. These demonstrate the risks associated with unintended and unpredictable changes that occur due to genetic engineering.
(Fifty two studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 2 No.103-154)
( III ) THE PROTEINS PRODUCED BY TRANSGENE MAY CREATE  PROBLEMS:
32 :  A gene from a Brazil Nut carried allergies into soybeans :
                         A gene from Brazil Nut was inserted into soybeans. Tests verified that people allergic to Brazil Nuts would react to the GM Soya. The project was cancelled.  The research verified that genetic engineering can transfer allergic proteins into crops. In 1996, Brazil nut genes were spliced into soybeans to provide the added protein methionine by Pioneer Hi-Bred. Some individuals, however, are so allergic to this nut, they can go into anaphylactic shock (similar to a severe bee sting reaction) which can lead to death. Avoiding GM Allergens is impossible because people allergic to certain food item avoid that food by reading the label, but GM foods are being sold without labeling in USA and other countries. Imagine the situation as to what could have happened if the GM Soya containing Brazil Nut gene was released into the market as large number of food items contain soybeans.
( Six studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.1-6)
33 :  GM proteins in Soya, corn and papaya may be allergens :
Tests cannot guarantee that a GM protein will not cause allergies. The WHO and FAO criteria to approve GM crops have been ignored in the case of soybean, corn and papaya. The GM proteins from these foods are too similar to known allergens. This evidence was ignored and these have been approved.
( Seventeen studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.7-23)
 GM soy might increase allergies in number of ways.
*  The impaired digestion might increase allergic response to many proteins.
*  The new allergen created by the GM process might cause reactions. There is up to a sevenfold increase in the allergen trypsin inhibitor in cooked soy.
*  GM soy has higher levels of herbicide residues, which might also trigger reactions. 
*  The Roundup Ready protein has properties of a known allergen.
*  In addition, since the soy transgene transfers to human gut bacteria and continues to produce this protein, it is possible that we have an allergen being continuously produced by our own intestinal flora.

34 :   Bt Crops may create allergies and illness :--
  Soil bacteria (Bt) create a natural pesticide that has been used in spray form for years. Genes from bacteria are inserted into crop DNA-so the plant produces Bt-toxin. Approvals of Bt crops are based on the claim that the spray is harmless and Bt toxin does not react with mammals. In reality, Bt spray is linked to allergies  and illness in humans and mammals
   ( Twenty studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.24-43)
 35 :  The Bt in crops is more toxic than the Bt in spray :
                         The Bt in GM Crops is more harmful than Bt spray due to differences in the concentration and form of the protein. Bt spray is used intermittently and it degrades in the environment. Bt-toxin in crops is thousands of times more concentrated and is continuously produced in every plant cell. The form of the Bt-toxin protein in GM crops is also more toxic.
(Eight studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.44-51)
 36 :  StarLink corn's built-in pesticide has a medium likelihood of being an allergen :
 StarLink corn was declared potentially allergenic by US EPA, hence was approved only for animal feed. But there was some contamination of human food supply in USA. Thousands reported health effects including life threatening episodes. There were massive food recalls. In countries like India the situation is even more dangerous because it is impossible to isolate animal and human food.
 (Eleven studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.52-62)

 37 : Pollen-sterilizing Barnase in GM crops may cause kidney damage :
 Corn and Canola are engineered to produce a pollen sterilizing toxin called Barnase. Barnase is toxic to human cells and causes kidney damage in rats.
 (Eleven studies quoted by Jeffrey Smith in his book Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.63-72)
 38 : High Lysine GM Corn contains increased toxins and may retard growth :
 Monsanto produced corn with higher levels of Lysine. If consumed in high quantities, the elevated lysine may adversely affect human health in unpredictable ways. The corn was also found to contain increased amounts of known toxins and other potentially harmful substances. The growth rate of chickens fed on high-lysine corn was less than those fed on Non-GM Corn.
(Nine studies-Jeffrey Smith--Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.73-81)
 39 : Cooking High Lysine Corn may create disease-promoting toxins :
 GM Corn variety engineered to produce high levels of Lysine, when cooked and processed may produce toxic compounds associated with symptoms of Alzheimer's, Diabetes, Allergies, Kidney Disease, Cancer and Aging.
(Twenty three studies-Jeffrey Smith-Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 3 No.82-104)
 40 : Disease-resistant crops may promote human viruses and other diseases :
 Viral genes inserted into disease-resistant crops produce "viral" proteins. Consuming these may suppress the body's defense against viral infections. The proteins may also be toxic and lead to disease. Viral Transgenes produce RNA that might influence gene expression in humans in unpredictable ways.
( Nine studies-Jeffrey Smith-- Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 3 No.105-113)
( IV )The foreign protein may be different than what is intended:
There are four ways in which, the structure of the protein can influence its function and the resultant impact on health:
i) amino acid sequence of the protein
ii) how the protein is folded
iii) how proteins interact and create aggregate shapes
iv) content, shape and location of other molecules such as sugars, phosphates or lipids that become attached to the proteins.
               Studies have shown that during the process of Genetic Engineering all these alterations take place in unpredictable ways.
41 : GM proteins may be misfolded or  have added molecules :
Proteins expressed in a GM Plant may be processed differently than in the donor organism. The changes may include misfolding or molecular attachments-can be harmful in unpredicted ways. Consumption of GM crops with misfolded proteins could trigger diseases, since  they survive digestion and are distributed throughout the body. The expression may take decades to appear. One of the most well known examples of dangerous misfolded  proteins are prions (proteinaceous infectious particles), responsible for Mad Cow Disease ( Bovine spongiform Encephalopathy) and deadly Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease in humans. Current studies don't test adequately for these changes.
 (Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 1-12)
 42 : Transgenes may be altered during insertion :
 During insertion, the transgene may become truncated, rearranged or interspersed with extraneous pieces of DNA. This altered transgene may produce proteins with unpredictably harmful effects.
(Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 13-29)
43 : Transgene may be unstable and rearrange over time :
At least two studies showed that the sequence of inserted genes was different than what was described by the company. This suggests that transgenes are unstable and spontaneously rearrange. Such changes can have unpredictable consequences for health. Thus safety assessments conducted on the original protein do not apply to changed version.
(Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 30-41)
44 : Transgene may create more than one protein :
Genetic Engineering Technology was created based on the outmoded notion  that a single gene will create only a single protein. Due to a process called alternative splicing, a single gene can produce many different proteins.
(Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 42-44)
45 : Environmental Stress and genetic disposition can significantly change gene expression :
Environmental factors, natural and man-made substances and genetic disposition of a particular plant can influence levels of transgene expression and can cause unique health effects.
(Twelve sdudies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 45-56)
46 : Genetic Engineering ignores and disrupts complex relationship in the DNA :
The GM transformation process can disrupt networks of genes that function together. Synthetic transgenes may act different than natural ones. Multiple transgenes may interact in unpredicted ways.
(Five studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 4 No. 57-61)
( V ) TRANSFER OF GENES TO GUT BACTERIA, INTERNAL ORGANS OR VIRUSES:
This has now been established that transgenes jump from GM crops to gut and soil bacteria. The results may be disastrous.
47 : Transgenes survive the digestive system and can wander :
The advocates of GM based industry claimed that genes were destroyed during digestion and therefore gene transfer to gut bacteria will not happen. Studies now prove that genes survive digestion both in humans and animals. Not only that it has now been proved that from gut genes can pass on to blood, various organs, can cross blood brain barrier and reach the fetus through placenta.
(Fourteen studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 3-16)
 48 :  Transgene design facilitates transfer into gut bacteria :
 Natural genes are likely to get transferred between species and even kingdoms. But it is uncommon. Transgenes are especially suited to overcome this barrier of transfer. Short bacterial sequences and higher herbicide residues significantly increase the transfer rate. Thus transgenes may readily travel from GM food to gut bacteria.
(Nine studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 17-25)
49:Transgene may proliferate in gut bacteria over the long-term:
Once transferred into gut bacteria, these bacteria with transgene may be at a survival advantage. The reasons may be -- antibiotic and herbicide resistance, promoters that function in bacteria and genetic mechanisms that promote uncontrolled replication. Having infected our gut bacteria, the foreign genes and the proteins they create may be harmful.
(Five studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 26-30)
 50 : Transgene transfer to human gut bacteria is confirmed :
The only human trial ever published confirmed that genetic material from Roundup Ready Soya is transferred into the gut bacteria in three of the seven human volunteers. The transferred portion of the transgene was stable inside the bacteria and appeared to produce herbicide-tolerant protein. There is no known way to treat such a condition, which may be long term.
(Six studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 31-36)
 51 : GM Foods might create antibiotic resistant diseases :
Antibiotic Resistant Marker (ARM) genes have been inserted into most GM foods on the market. If ARM genes are transferred to pathogenic bacteria inside the gut or mouth, they might create super diseases,  untreatable with one or more types of antibiotics. GM crops may accelerate the rise of antibiotic-resistant illnesses, which are already responsible for death and disease.
(Twenty one studies-Jeffrey Smith -Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 5 No.37-57)
52 :The Promoter can also get transferred and may switch on random genes or viruses :
Contrary to earlier assumptions, the Ca MV Promoter does function in human, animal and bacteria DNA. This promoter does transfer into the DNA of human gut bacteria and might also transfer into human DNA. Once transferred, it may switch on genes that produce-- toxins, allergens or carcinogens; create genetic instability and in higher organisms switch on dormant viruses.   
(Twenty one studies-Jeffrey Smith -Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 5 No.58-71)
 53 :  If Bt genes transfer into gut bacteria, they can turn into living pesticide factories :
Transfer of Bt Transgene can cause our gut flora to produce Bt toxin. With increased exposure to Bt crops, the number of gut bacteria producing Bt toxin may increase over time. Since Bt toxin has been associated with immune responses and damaged cells in animal intestines, long term exposure may cause significant health problems.
(Two studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 72 and73)
54 :  Genes may transfer to bacteria in the mouth or throat :
Bacteria in the mouth can take up free DNA. GM DNA might similarly transfer from food. Breathing dust or pollen from GM crops might cause genes to transfer to microorganisms in the respiratory tract. These might impact health and possibly pass from person to person.
(Six studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 5 No. 74-79)
55 :  Transfer of viral genes into gut microorganisms may create toxins and weaken viral defenses :
Proteins produced from viruses can be toxic and disable viral defenses. If viral genes from GM crops transferred to gut microorganisms, they might produce large quantities of potentially harmful proteins. Viral transgene characteristics make transfer to gut microorganisms much more likely.
( VI ) GM CROPS MAY INCREASE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXINS AND BIOACCUMULATE TOXINS IN THE FOOD CHAIN :
GM crops are becoming part of the ecosystem. If toxins are used or produced in the process of GM crop production they are bound to accumulate in the environment, food chain and human tissues.
56 : Glufosinate-tolerant crops may produce herbicide inside our intestines :
Some crops are engineered to withstand glufosinate-based herbicide. The herbicide tolerant GM crops transform the herbicide into a compound regarded as nontoxic, called NAG, which remains in the plant. Once humans or animals consume NAG, gut bacteria can revert some NAG back into toxic herbicide. The herbicide has known toxic effects-act as an antibiotic and may kill off or disturb gut micro-flora. If the herbicide-tolerant gene transfers to gut bacteria, it could magnify the problems.
 (Twenty three studies-Jeffrey Smith-Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 6 No.1-23)
57 : Herbicide-tolerant crops increase herbicide use and residues in food :
Herbicide-tolerant crops increase the use of their associated herbicides. Increased herbicide residues in crops can promote the toxic effects of these chemicals on humans, animals and their offspring. Increased herbicide use can also alter nutrient content-such as flavonoids, making GM foods less nutritious. The accelerated emergence of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the increased use of even more toxic varieties of herbicides.
(Twenty four studies-Jeffrey Smith -Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 6 No.23-48)
 58:Tiny amounts of herbicide may act as endocrine disruptors :
Certain chemicals may disrupt endocrine function at extremely low concentrations. Research on Roundup suggests it may be such a chemical, disrupting endocrine activity related to human sex hormone production. The increased use of Liberty and Roundup, due to GM crops, may expose the population through food and water to these low-dose effects.
(Five studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 6 No. 49-53)
59 : GM crops may accumulate environmental toxins or concentrate toxins in milk and meat of GM fed animals :
FDA scientists warned that GM crops may concentrate toxins, such as heavy metals and herbicides, from the environment. There is evidence of heavy metals in GM soybean oil. FDA scientists also said that toxins in GM feed might concentrate in milk or meat. GM DNA fragments were found in milk. Small amounts of Roundup may be retained in the body of animals and affect sperm quality. The overuse of Roundup and Liberty herbicides on GM crops magnifies these types of risks. Many scientific studies indicate  that these herbicides are even worse than DDT. Roundup, can accumulate and persist in the soil for years, where it kills off beneficial microbes and stimulates virulence of pathogens
(Fifteen studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 6 No. 54-68)
 60 : Disease-resistant crops may promote new plant viruses, which carry risks for humans :
                        Virus-resistant transgenes protect crops from one target virus, but may increase susceptibility to other plant viruses. Infected plants put humans at risk due to increased pesticide use. They may also lead to increased consumption of potentially harmful viral proteins.
 (Eleven studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 6 No. 69-79)
( VII ) OTHER TYPES OF GM FOODS CARRY RISKS :
61 :  Milk from rbGH-treated cows may increase risk of cancer and other diseases :
Monsanto's genetically engineered bovine growth hormone is injected into dairy cows in USA to increase milk production. Milk from treated cows has much higher levels of IGF-1, a hormone considered to be a high risk factor for breast, prostrate, colon, lung and other cancers. The milk also has lowered nutritional value, increased antibiotics and more pus from infected udders.
(Twenty five studies-Jeffrey Smith -Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1,SECTION 7 No. 1-25)
62 : Milk from rbGH-treated cows is likely to increase the rate of twin births :
Higher IGF-1 levels increase the rate of twin births. Since milk drinkers increase their IGF-1, correspondingly they have higher twinning rates. The number of twins grew at twice the rate in USA compared to UK where rbGH is banned.
(Fourteen studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 7 No. 26-39)
 63 : Food additives created from GM microorganisms pose health risks :
Certain food ingredients and processing agents are derived from GM bacteria, fungus or yeast. Even if the transgene is not found in the food, the GM process still carries risks. The GM protein may be unhealthy, have altered properties or react with other compounds in unpredictable ways. The gene insertion process might also disrupt normal gene expression of the microorganisms.
(Fourteen studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 7 No. 40-45)
( VIII ) RISKS ARE GREATER FOR FETUS, NEWBORNS AND CHILDREN :
 64 : Pregnant mothers eating GM foods may endanger off spring:
Embryo developing in the mother's womb can be adversely affected by tiny amounts of substances in the mother's diet.  A pregnant mother's diet may even alter gene expression in children and be passed on to future generations. GM crops may contain substances that impact normal fetal development.
 (Twelve studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 8 No. 1-12)
65 : GM foods are more dangerous for children than adults :
Children are in general more susceptible to toxins, allergens and nutritional problems. They consume more milk, which may be from animals fed on GM crops or may have been treated with GM rbGH. Recurrent infections are more common in children. They can be gravely affected if the antibiotic resistant infections are prevalent in the community.

(Thirteen studies--Jeffrey Smith --Genetic Roulette-bibliography-PART-1, SECTION 8 No. 13-25)

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ENGINEERED CROPS

The Ecological Risks of Engineered Crops, genetically modified crops pose six kinds of potential risks.
1. The engineered crops themselves could become weeds, a broad term that covers plants with undesirable effects.
2. The crops might serve as conduits through which new genes move to wild plants, which could then become weeds.
3. The crops engineered to produce viruses could facilitate the creation of new, more virulent or more widely spread viruses.
4.The plants engineered to express potentially toxic substances could present risks to other organisms like birds or deer.
5.The crops may initiate a perturbation that may have effects that ripple through an ecosystem in ways that are difficult to predict.
6.The crops might threaten centers of crop diversity.
VISIBLE IMPACTS UPTO NOW :

1. Monarch butterflies is disappearing because of Bt corn:

2. Resistant pests are emerging-leading to excessive use, the use of more costly and more toxic pesticides. Reports of super pests have already started appearing.

 For example-Recombinant papaya ringspot virus has become resistant in genetically modified papaya.

3.Herbicide Resistant Weeds are coming up-leading to excessive use, use of more costly and more toxic weedicides. The studies indicating the appearance of super weeds have started pouring in.

4. Pollution on Non- GM plants with GM Pollens- what is called GM pollution is happening in a big way. There is lot of hue and cry and even court cases in USA about the pollution of Non-GM plants with GM pollens.
                                          CONCLUSIONS
By introducing GM Crops; human health, animal health, biodiversity and environment; all have been endangered. MNCs are gambling to earn fast buck. It is basically corporate greed which is the engine behind the  pushing of GM crops one after the other. It is based on incomplete and primitive knowledge of genetics which is continuously changing. Understanding of DNA is still at an infancy stage. Functioning of nature and human body is highly complex. Equally complex is the functioning of DNA which is the creating and controlling molecule behind all types of biology. It is really amazing how this molecule orchestrates life. We are still at a stage where our understanding in this regard is rapidly shifting every few years. It is highly arrogant to insist that we have sufficient knowledge to make artificial permanent changes that can gravely affect the health of living beings and environment.
                                          Multi National Companies insist that the benefits are so great that it is worth taking risk. But question arises, who benefits and who is at risk ? The MNCs developing and selling seeds and other related inputs and some big farmers benefit in term of money but  every one is at risk including those working for MNCs and farmers. The greatest danger is the health. It is very difficult to test for long term ill effects GM foods on health. They are visible after many years. They resemble other chronic diseases and in the presence of large number of other environmental toxins, it is almost impossible to say how much is the contribution of GM food.  The GM foods are not being labeled. That complicates the situation further. For the last few decades; diabetes, asthma, allergies, acid-peptic disease, autoimmune disorders, cancers, hypertension and blood vessel diseases, reproductive disorders and impaired immunity all are rapidly increasing. A similar trend is being seen in the cattle.
                                         In light of these facts, GMOs have been banned/ restricted in almost whole of Europe. In North America the resistance is building up. There is a great demand to label GM foods. But US Government is adamant because they know the moment they are labeled their sale will drastically come down. US exports are suffering because Europe refuses to accept GM foods. As more and more people are learning about ill effects of GM foods they are shifting to organic foods. GM Bovine Growth Hormone used in cows has been banned in Canada after huge public debate. Fearing the unsafe food available in the market people in Europe are campaigning to popularize back yard organic kitchen garden. Those who can afford try to buy organic foods.  
                                         In India we have not allowed the cultivation of GM crops except cotton. The attempts to bring Bt Brinjal has been thwarted for the time being. But Monsanto and other MNCs seem to be  bent upon bringing large number of GM crops into our country. There are indications that unlabelled GM foods are coming to India from outside. Let us build an awareness based of scientific truths. Let us prevent the entry of GM crops. Let us build better alternatives. We can build it. Farmers along with support from agricultural scientists has proved that organic/ natural/ chemical and GM  free farming is not only at par with chemical/GM model, it is much better in every aspect. FAO has also endorsed these conclusions. In India our farmers and pro-organic agriculture scientists have proved the superiority of organic farming. In Punjab we have limited experience, but results are highly encouraging. Let us raise our voice against the vested interests of corporate sector, which is bent upon destroying our food, environment and biodiversity. They are the messengers of death. Let us stop them from destroying life on this planet.                

                                                                                Dr. Amar Singh Azad
                                                                                79- Doctors Colony,
                                                                                Bhadson Road, Patiala
                                                                        azadamarsingh@gmail.com
                                                                         Phone: 09872861321


                                                                

Yogendra Yadav projections for Gujarat Scenario 1 to 3 ON  DECEMBER 14, 2017  BY  NARESH SAGAR LEAVE A COMMENT EDIT Probabilities...